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Products / Commercial & Industrial Heating

SKIN-Effect Heating System

Safe and reliable heating system for pipelines of any length designed for above-ground, buried and under-water pipelines, including ones in explosion hazardous zones.

  • Heating of extra long pipelines
  • No accompanying supply network required
  • High operating temperatures
  • Electrical safety
  • High mechanical strength of the heating system
  • Application in explosion hazardous zones

Design

Applicatioin field

Induction-resistive heating system (IRHS) or SKIN-system is designed to maintain the product temperature, protect long trunk pipelines against freezing and ensure their start heating. SKIN-system is the only one, which is capable to heat a pipeline run of up to 60 km long (without any accompanying network). The present system can be also used for heating trunk pipelines of an unlimited length provided accompanying supply network is arranged.

Principle of operation

The heating element of the system consists of an inductiveresistive heater (IR-heater) with the outer diameter of 20–45 mm and the wall thickness of at least 3.0 mm; there is an insulated copper inductive-resistive conductor (IR-conductor) with cross section of 10–30 mm2 placed in it. The IR-conductor is electrically connected to the IR-heater at the end of a heating run while AC voltage is supplied between the conductor and the IR-heater at the run head; the voltage value is calculated basing on the required heat output and the heated run length.

Currents of the IR-conductor and the IR-heater have opposite directions and thus skin and proximity effects originate in the system. As a result the IR-heater current flows in the inner layer close to the inner surface of the IR-heater and there is no voltage available on the outer surface of the IR-heater. The IR-conductor is non-magnetic (made of copper, aluminum), thus, it does not feature any noticeable skin effect and AC flows throughout the whole cross section of the IR-conductor.

The main heat producing element of IRHS is the tube, which produces up to 80% of the system output.

Technical specification

Length of the heated pipeline Up to 60 km without accompanying supply network
Power output of the heating system up to 120 W/m
Operating temperature up to 200 °C
Heating element voltage up to 4 (7) kV
Cross section of IR-conductor of the heater up to 30 mm2

Arrangement

IR-heater Low carbon steel tube with diameter of 20–45 mm and wall thickness of 3–4 mm
IR-conductor Special conductor resistive to high voltage (up to 4 (7) kV), high temperature (up to 200 °C) and mechanical stress at installation
Anticorrosion protection of IR-heater Epoxy coating of the heater (at Customer’s request)

Control and power supply scheme

 

Transformer-capacitance converters are used to supply power to load, they consist of special purpose transformer and load balancing device. This device allows connecting high power single-phase load (the heater of the SKIN-system) to three-phase power supply network with no current imbalance in power supply network at that. The control system monitors the ambient air temperature, IR-heater temperature, temperature of the pipeline being heated, load current and load voltage. The control system allows remote control over the heating process and supervision of all necessary parameters.Safety

 

Safety of the system is ensured by skin effect due to which the current flows in the inner layer of the IR-heater close to its inner surface with the voltage potential of the outer surface being equal to zero. Heat transfer off SKIN-system to the pipeline is provided by a good contact and application of special heat conductive paste Silarm.